The Republic of Armenia, covering an area of 29,743 square kilometers (11,484 sq mi), is located in the north-east of the Armenian Highland. The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. The land rises to 4,090 meters (13,419 feet) above sea level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 390 metres (1,280 ft) above sea level.
Mount Ararat, which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region. Now located in Turkey, but clearly visible in Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land. Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today.
The climate in Armenia is markedly continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36 °C (72 and 97 °F). However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while autumns are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colorful foliage.Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between −10 and −5 °C (14 and 23 °F).
Armenia is a representative parliamentary democratic republic. The Armenian constitution adhered to the model of a semi-presidential republic until April 2018.
According to the current Constitution of Armenia, the President is the head of state holding largely representational functions, while the Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises executive power.
Armenia has a population of 3,238,000 (2008 est.) About 1,000,000 live in the capital. Armenia has a relatively large external diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia itself), with communities existing across the globe. The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria,Lebanon, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Greece, Italy, Cyprus, Israel, Poland, Ukraine and Brazil. 40,000 to 70,000 Armenians still live in Turkey (mostly in and around Istanbul).
Ethnic Armenians make up 97.9% of the population. Yazidis make up 1.3%, and Russians 0.5%. Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks Kurds, Georgians, and Belarusians.
Armenian is the only official language. Due to its Soviet past, Russian is still widely used in Armenia and could be considered as de facto second language. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. It’s a branch of Hindu – European language family.
The Republic of Armenia recognizes the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, an event traditionally dated to AD 301. The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the 1st century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus’ twelve apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew – who preached Christianity in Armenia between AD 40–60. Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church. Over 93% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonies) Orthodoxy. The head of Armenian Apostolic Church is the Catholicos of all Armenians.
The average time, GMT +4 hours
The national currency
Dram (the international recognition of AMD), that has been circulated since November 1993. here are banknotes of 1000, 5000, 20000, 50000, 100000 Dram denomination. There are also coins of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 Dram denomination. Foreign currency can be exchanged in banks and currency exchange offices throughout the city. The approximate exchange rate is:
1 USD = 470 AMD
1 EUR = 530 AMD
1 RUB = 7.11 AMD
1 GBP = 675 AMD
The electricity in Armenia is 220 volt, 50 Hz , as in almost all of Europe. The Armenian socket standard is CEE, mostly without grounding. The outlet adaptors for the standards of different countries can be purchased in almost all home appliances and electronics stores in Yerevan.
Holidays and non working days
Both public and religious holidays are celebrated in Armenia. The shops and restaurants are generally open also on holidays. The following holidays are non-working:
- Christmas and New Year (from December 31 to January 6),
- Army Day – January 28,
- The International Women’s Day – March 8,
- Labor Day – May 1,
- Victory and Peace Day – May 9,
- Republic Day – May 28,
- Constitution Day – July 5,
- Independence Day – September 21.
April 24 is also a non-working day – the commemoration day of the Armenian Genocide victims.
The post offices in Armenia work every day from 9 am to 7 pm. Sunday is a day-off. One of the central post offices is located at the Republic Square, opposite the Government building.
There are several mobile operators – “Beeline”, “VivaCell”, “Ucom”. The cards can be purchased at Zvartnots International Airport, at the offices of these operators or at the big stores, having the passport copy. The cards provide 3G connection and high speed Internet. For making calls by the cell phone to the fixed-line number in Yerevan it is necessary to dial 010 followed by the number.
The country code is 374, Yerevan city code is 10.
Outgoing international calls can be made by dialing 00 followed by the country code, the city code and the number.
The citizens of the CIS member-states, the EU member-states and the Schengen Acquis states do not need visa to travel to Armenia. For the visitors under 18 years old visa is free of charge.
The citizens of several countries can get a visa upon arrival in Armenia, at the border checkpoints. In general the procedure lasts 20-25 minutes. Visa can be also obtained prior to the arrival (online) by applying to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia:http://www.mfa.am